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Read Cooley’s Cyclopaedia of Practical Receipts Volume I Part 136

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=Cerate, Zinc.= _Syn._ CERA’TUM ZINC’I, C. Z. OXY’DI, L. _Prep._ 1. Oxide of zinc, 20 gr., spermaceti cerate, 1 oz. Used in sore nipples, excoriations, &c.; and in chronic ophthalmia.

2. (Compound; CERA’TUM ZINCI COMPOSITUM, L.)–_a._ To the last add calomel, 10 gr. Used as the last, and in scrofulous ophthalmia.

_b._ (Mid. Hosp.) Zinc ointment and compound lead ointment, equal parts.

Cooling, astringent; in excoriations, and as a dressing for ulcers.

_c._ (Hufeland.) Oxide of zinc and lycopodium, of each 15 gr.; simple cerate, 1/2 oz. In sore nipples, ulcerations of the breast, tetters, &c.

It acts best when diluted with half its weight of spermaceti cerate.

_d._ (U. S. Ph.) Precipitated carbonate zinc, 2 oz.; simple cerate, 10 oz.

A subst.i.tute for calamine cerate.

=CEREB’RIC ACID.= A peculiar acid compound, first noticed by M. Fremy, obtained along with oleo-phosphoric acid when the brain and nerves are treated with hot alcohol. It is solid, white, crystalline; freely soluble in boiling alcohol, and forms a solid gelatinous ma.s.s with hot water; fusible with decomposition, exhaling a peculiar odour, and leaving much charcoal behind. It has been found also in the yolk of eggs, in seminal fluid, and in pus. With the alkalies it forms insoluble salts termed cerebrates.

=CEREB’ROLEIN.= When oleo-phosphoric acid is boiled in water, it is resolved into a fluid neutral oil and phosphoric acid, which dissolves.

The former is cerebrolein.

=CE’RIN=, HC_{27}H_{53}O_{2}. (Brodie.) _Syn._ CEROTIC ACID. When pure beeswax (bleached) is digested in boiling alcohol for some time, a solution of myricin and cerin is formed. The former is deposited as the liquid cools, and the latter may be obtained by evaporating the decanted portion. Cerin is a white, crystallisable substance, soluble in 16 parts of boiling alcohol; it fuses at 144 Fahr.; and is readily saponified with caustic alkaline lyes. It greatly resembles white wax, of which, indeed, it forms from 70%; to 80%.

=CERISIN.= A substance obtained from ozokerit or fossil wax, very similar in appearance and properties to white wax, for which it has been proposed as a subst.i.tute in pharmaceutical preparations. At present it is chiefly used in the manufacture of candles. Cerisin appears to be one of the paraffins. It differs, however, from ordinary paraffin in not being unctuous to the touch, in being non-translucent and firmer in texture, and in having a higher fusing point. It seems to be intermediate between ordinary paraffin and wax.

=CE’RIUM.= Ce. A metal discovered in 1803 by Hisinger and Berzelius in the mineral named cerite.

=Cerium Oxalate.= (Ph. B.) It may be obtained as a precipitate by adding a solution of oxalate of ammonia to a soluble salt of cerium.–_Dose_, 1 to 2 gr. Given in the vomiting of pregnancy.

=CE’ROMEL.= _Prep._ (Van Mons.) Beeswax, 1 oz.; honey, 4 oz.; melt together and stir until cold. An excellent application to irritable ulcers, abraded surfaces, sore nipples, &c.

=CERO’TIC ACID.= See CERIN.

=CESSPOOLS.= It may be well to point out that the local authorities of any district in which a cesspool is situated are required by the Public Health Act–1. To see that it is so constructed and kept as to prevent its becoming either a nuisance or detrimental to health. 2. That an examination of any cesspool can be made by the sanitary inspector, or by any officer appointed by the local authority, after notice of entry has been served upon those who are the occupiers of the premises on which it is situated. 3. The local authority may itself undertake the cleansing of a cesspool, or it may enact bye-laws imposing this duty on the occupiers of the premises. 4. If the local authority, after having undertaken the cleansing of a cesspool, fail to do its duty, it becomes liable, after notice from an occupier, for the payment to the said occupier of a penalty not exceeding five shillings a day during default. 5. Any person in an urban district who allows the contents of a cesspool to overflow, or to soak therefrom, incurs a penalty of forty shillings for each offence, and a further charge of five shillings a day for the continuance of the offence after notice. 6. Information of any nuisance under the said Act in the district of any local authority may be given to such local authority by any person aggrieved thereby, or by any two inhabitant householders of such district, or by any officer of such authority, or by the relieving officer, or by any constable or officer of the police force of such district.

It does not come within our province to enter into details as to the best method of building a cesspool.

We may, however, state, that owing to the defective and leaky construction of a cesspool, it very frequently becomes a serious source of dangerous contamination to the wells in the neighbourhood, as well as a ready means of contagion, when it contains the excreta of fever patients. The outbreak of typhoid fever at the west end of London in 1874, the origin of which was traced to the milk supply, was owing to the vessels in which the milk was collected in the country having been washed out with water taken from a well near a cesspool, into which ran the contents of a privy belonging to a house, some of the inmates of which were labouring under typhoid fever.

For a cesspool not to be injurious to health it should be water-tight and ventilated by a shaft; it should never be allowed to overflow; and should be sunk at as great a distance from houses or dwellings as possible.

=CE’TIN.= C_{32}H_{64}O_{2}. Chevreul applied this name to pure spermaceti. _Prep._ Dissolve spermaceti in boiling alcohol, and collect the crystals that are deposited as the solution cools. Bright pearly crystals, melting at 120, and subliming at 670 Fahr. See SPERMACETI.

=CETRAR’IC ACID.= H_{2}C_{18}H_{14}O_{8}. _Syn._ CETRAR’IN. The bitter principle of Iceland moss (_Cetraria Islandica_). It exists, in the free state, in the cortical portion of the thallus.

_Prep._ 1. Iceland moss (bruised), 1 part; rectified spirit, 6 parts; boil in a covered vessel for half an hour; express the liquor whilst hot, filter, and distil off the spirit; redissolve the residuum in boiling alcohol, decant the clear, and let the solution cool slowly; lastly, collect the crystals and preserve them out of contact with air.

2. (Herberger.) Iceland moss (in coa.r.s.e powder), 1 lb.; alcohol (883), 4 lbs.; boil as before, cool until vapours cease to rise, express the tincture, add hydrochloric acid, 3 dr., (dissolved in) water, 2 oz.; let it rest for a night in a closed matra.s.s; then decant, throw the deposit on a filter, press it in bibulous paper, and whilst still moist wash it with both alcohol and ether; lastly, purify it by digestion in boiling alcohol, as before.

_Prop., &c._ Pure cetraric acid occurs under the form of minute, shining, acicular crystals; it is intensely bitter, non-volatile, scarcely soluble in water, ether, and cold alcohol; soluble in alkaline solutions forming soluble salts, which give a red colour with the persalts of iron, and a yellow one with acetate of lead. The compounds are called cetrarates.–_Dose_, 2 to 4 gr. every three hours, as a febrifuge; 1 to 3 gr. thrice daily, as a tonic.

=CHA’BERT’S OIL.= _Syn._ CHABERT’S EMPYREUMAT’IC OIL; O’LEUM EMPYREUMAT’Ic.u.m CHABERTI, O. CONTRA TaeNIAM CHABERTI, L. _Prep._ (Ph. Bor.

1847.) From empyreumatic oil of hartshorn, 1 part; oil of turpentine, 3 parts; mix and distil over three fourths only in a gla.s.s retort, and keep it in well-stopped bottles. In tapeworm.–_Dose_, 2 teaspoonfuls in water, night and morning, until 4 to 6 or even 7 oz. have been taken; a cathartic being also administered from time to time.

=CHAFING.= See EXCORIATIONS.

=CHAIRS.= The black leather work of chairs, settees, &c., may be restored by first well washing off the dirt with a little warm soap and water, and afterwards with clean water. The brown and faded portions may now be retained by means of a little black ink, or preferably, black reviver, and when this has got thoroughly dry, they may be touched over with white of egg, stained and mixed with a little sugar-candy. When the surface is nearly dry, it should be polished off with a clean brush.

=CHALK.= _Syn._ SOFT CARBONATE OF LIME, or CARBONATE OF CALCIUM, EARTHY C.

OF L.; CRE’TA, L. Chalk is largely used in the arts and manufactures, and in medicine. The natural varieties are remarkable for the fossils which they contain. The COLOURED CHALKS which are used as pigments and for crayons generally contain both clay and magnesia, as well as oxide of iron, and are minerals quite distinct from WHITE CHALK, or CHALK properly so called. The latter is an AMORPHOUS CARBONATE OF LIME. Exposed for some time to a red heat, it is converted into QUICK-LIME; ground in mills and elutriated, it forms WHITING; the same process performed more carefully and on a smaller scale produces the PREPARED CHALK used in medicine. When prepared artificially (by precipitation), it is the PRECIPITATED CHALK of modern pharmacy. (See _below_.)

=Chalk, Black.= A variety of drawing slate.

=Chalk, Brown.= A familiar name for umber.

=Chalk, Cam’phorated.= _Syn._ CRETACEOUS TOOTH POWDER, CAM’PHORATED T. P.; CRE’TA CAM’PHORATA, C. c.u.m CAMPHO’RA, L. _Prep._ 1. Camphor, 1 oz.; add a few drops of spirit of wine, reduce it to a very fine powder, and mix it (perfectly) with precipitated chalk, 7 oz.; lastly, pa.s.s it through a clean, fine sieve, and keep it in a corked bottle. These proportions make the strongest “CAMPHORATED TOOTH POWDER” of the shops.

2. Camphor, 1 oz.; precipitated chalk, 15 oz.; as before. These are the best and safest proportions, and those now generally adopted by the West-end perfumers.

3. As either of the above, but using prepared chalk in lieu of precipitated chalk. Less white and velvety, but cleans the teeth better than the softer article.

_Uses, &c._ Camphorated chalk is much esteemed as a dentifrice; especially by smokers, and those troubled with foul teeth, or offensive breath. It may be scented with a few drops (3 or 4 to each oz.) of otto of roses, oil of cloves, or neroli, or of the essences of ambergris, musk, or vanilla; but care must be taken not to overdo it. When the teeth are much furred or discoloured, it may be mixed with about one seventh of its weight of finely powdered pumice stone (sifted through lawn), which will render it more effective. A little carmine, rouge, light red (burnt ochre), red coral, or rose pink, is also sometimes added to give it a tinge approaching that of the gums. The quant.i.ty of camphor (1 to 3 or 4) commonly ordered in certain books is absurdly large, and would render the compound not only unpleasant in use, but actually detrimental to the teeth. See DENTIFRICES.

=Chalk, French.= Soap stone or steat.i.te, a soft magnesian mineral, possessing the property of writing on gla.s.s. It is used by tailors for marking cloths. Its powder (obtained by sc.r.a.ping) is very soft, velvety, and absorbent of grease. It forms the boot powder of the boot- and shoe-makers.

=Chalk Mixture.= _Syn._ MISTURA CRETae, L. Prepared chalk, 1 part; gum arabic (in powder), 1 part; syrup, 2 parts; cinnamon water, 30 parts; mix by trituration.–_Dose_, 1 to 2 oz., with astringent tinctures and opium.

Care should be taken to use the prepared chalk as directed; the precipitated chalk has a crystalline character, and is said to occasion irritation of the bowels. (Squire.)

=Chalk, Precip’itated.= _Syn._ PRECIPITATED CAR’BONATE OF LIME; CRE’TA PRaeCIPITA’TA, CAL’CIS CARB’ONAS PRaeCIPITA’TUM, L. _Prep._ 1. By adding to a solution of chloride of calcium, any quant.i.ty, another of carbonate of soda (both cold), and well washing the precipitate with pure water, and drying it out of the dust.

2. (Ph. D.) Solution of chloride of calcium (Ph. D.), 5 parts; carbonate of soda, 3 parts; (dissolved in) water, 4 parts.

3. (B. P.) Dissolve chloride of calcium, 5 oz.; and carbonate of soda, 13 oz.; each in two pints of boiling distilled water; mix the two solutions, and allow the precipitate to subside. Collect this on a calico filter, wash it with boiling distilled water, until the washing cease to give a precipitate with nitrate of silver, and try the product at the temperature of 212 F.

_Uses, &c._ It is chiefly employed for making aromatic confection, cretaceous powder, and chalk mixture. That of the shops is seldom pure, the refuse of the soda-water makers (sulphate of lime) being commonly sold for it. When pure it is wholly soluble, with effervescence, in dilute hydrochloric acid. (See _below_.)

=Chalk, Prepa”red.= _Syn._ CRE’TA (Ph. E. & Ph. L. 1836), CRE’TA PREPARA’TA (Ph. L. 1851), CRE’TA AL’BA (Ph. D.), L. _Prep._ 1. (Ph. D.

1836.) Rub chalk, 1 lb., with sufficient water, add gradually, until reduced to a smooth cream; then stir this into a large quant.i.ty of water, and, after a short interval, to allow the coa.r.s.er particles to subside, pour off the supernatant water (still turbid) into another vessel, and allow the suspended powder to settle; lastly, collect the chalk so prepared and dry it. In the same way sh.e.l.ls are prepared, after being first freed from impurities and washed with boiling water.

2. (Commercial; WHI’TING.) On the large scale the chalk is ground in mills, and the elutriation and deposit made in large reservoirs. It is now seldom prepared by the druggist.

_Pur._ Almost entirely soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid, provided it contains no sulphate of lime or silica, giving off small bubbles of carbonic acid gas.

_Test._ The salt formed by dissolving the chalk in hydrochloric acid, if rendered neutral by evaporation to dryness and redissolved in water, gives only a very scanty precipitate on the addition of a saccharated solution of lime, indicating absence of phosphate. (B. P.)

_Uses, &c._ In _medicine_, as an absorbent, antacid, and desiccant; in acidity, heartburn, dyspepsia, and other like stomach affections, and in diarrha, depending on acidity or irritation; in the latter, generally combined with aromatics, astringents, or opium. It forms a valuable dusting powder in excoriations, ulcers, &c., especially in those of children.–_Dose_, 10 gr. to a spoonful, in a little water or milk, or made into a mixture with mucilage or syrup.

=Chalk, Red.= A natural clay containing about 18% of protoxide and carbonate of iron.

=CHALYB’EATES.= _Syn._ CHALYBEA’TA, FERRUGIN’EA, L. The medicinal qualities of the preparations of iron are noticed under the name of that metal. Those most frequently employed in medicine are–IRON FILINGS; QUEVENNE’S IRON; the BLACK OXIDE, MAGNETIC OXIDE, and SESQUIOXIDE OF IRON; the AMMONIO-CHLORIDE and SESQUICHLORIDE; the CARBONATE and SACCHARINE CARBONATE; the CITRATE and AMMONIO-CITRATE; the IODIDE, LACTATE, and SULPHATE; the TARTRATE, AMMONIO-TARTRATE, and POTa.s.sIO-TARTRATE OF IRON; and the CHALYBEATE MINERAL WATERS. For the doses, &c., see the respective articles.

=CHAM’OMILE.= _Syn._ ANTHE’MIS, L. The flowers of the _Anthemis n.o.bilis_ (_Anthemidis Flores_, B. P.). They are bitter, stomachic, and tonic; in dyspepsia, loss of appet.i.te, intermittents, &c. They are an effectual remedy for nightmare; and, according to Dr Schall, the only certain remedy for that complaint.–_Dose_, 10 gr. to 1/2 dr., or more, in powder or made into a tea. Fomentations are also made with it. See EXTRACTS, OILS, PILLS, &c.

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