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Read Cooley’s Cyclopaedia of Practical Receipts Volume I Part 236

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Once a trace of patchouli perfume was added to this water. (Hager.)

=Eye Water, Dr White’s= (T. Ehrhard, Altenfeld, Thuringia). Four cloves, a piece of cinnamon the size of a large pea, 2 teaspoonfuls of rose water, 1 drop of vinegar, 10 drops of arnica tincture. Digest for an hour and filter. Dissolve in the filtrate some white vitriol of the size of a pea.

(Hager.)

Sulphate of zinc, 3 parts; honey, 4 parts; water, 80 parts; perfumed with oil of cloves and a trace of mustard oil. (Wittstein.)

=Eye Waters.= See WATER.

=FACE A’GUE.= The common name for the intermittent form of facial NEURALGIA or TIC DOULOUREUX. See NEURALGIA.

=FACE PAINTS.= _Syn._ FARDS, Fr. See BLOOM, CARMINE, PEARL WHITE, ROUGE, &c.

=FAC-SIM’ILE.= An exact imitation of an original in all its traits and peculiarities. The term is chiefly used in relation to copies of old ma.n.u.scripts, or of the handwriting of famous men, or of interesting doc.u.ments, produced by engraving or lithography. See SIGNATURES.

=FACTI”TIOUS.= _Syn._ FACt.i.tIUS, L. Artificial; made by art, in distinction from that produced by nature. Numerous ill.u.s.trations of the application of this word occur in the pages of the present work.

=FaeCES.= Excrement. In the _laboratory_, the ‘settling’ or sediment deposited by a liquor. See DEFECATION, EXCRETA.

=FAINT’ING.= _Syn._ SWOONING; SYNCOPE, DELIQUIUM ANIMI, L. In _pathology_, a state in which the respiration and circulation are apparently suspended for a time, or are extremely feeble. The symptoms are too well known to require description. The causes are supposed to be–diminished energy of the brain, and organic affections of the heart or neighbouring vessels.

This has led nosologists to divide syncope into two varieties:–

1. _Occasional_ (SYNCOPE OCCASIONALIS, S. ACCIDENTALIS, L.), primitively induced by sudden and violent emotions of the mind, powerful odours, derangement of the stomach or bowels, constrained position of the body, tight-lacing, pressure, loss of blood, debility from disease, &c. This variety is frequently followed by vomiting, and, occasionally, by convulsions or epileptic fits. The recovery is accelerated by the horizontal position, without the head being the least elevated, by which the arterial blood is more vigorously thrown upon the brain, and thereby stimulates it to resume its usual functions. Pungent substances (smelling-bottle, vinaigrette, &c.) may be applied to the nostrils, and cold water sprinkled on the face and chest. In all cases the dress (corset, waist-band, neck-cloth, &c.) should be instantly loosened, and indeed this is the first a.s.sistance which should be given, either in syncope or apoplexy. As soon as the patient can swallow, a little brandy-and-water, or wine, or a few drops of ether or spirit of sal volatile, may be given.

2. _Cardiac_ (SYNCOPE CARDIACA, L.), arising without any apparent cause, with violent palpitation during the intervals, and altogether of a more formidable character than the preceding. The subsequent treatment must here be directed to the cure or alleviation of the original disease.

=FAINTS.= The first and last runnings of the whiskey-still. The one is technically termed the ‘strong faints,’ the other, the ‘weak faints.’ They are both purified by rectification, &c. See DISTILLATION.

=FAITH.= Dr Pereira remarks, that “faith in the beneficial agency of remedies, and confidence in the skill of the medical attendant, are important adjuvants in the treatment of disease. To them both the physician and empiric owe part of their success.”

=FAL’LING SICK’NESS.= See EPILEPSY.

=FAMILIENSALBE=, Family Ointment (Goring). 16 grammes of a hard yellow salve in a round box; a mixture of 9 parts wax, 3 parts fat; 2 parts turpentine, 2 parts insp.i.s.sated juice of _Ornithogalium scilloides_ Jacquin, or _O. candatum_ Aiton. These plants are known to the public as Meerzwiebel (sea onion or squill), but they are only related to that plant in appearance. (Hager.)

=FAR’CY.= See GLANDERS.

=FARDEL-BOUND.= _Syn._ CLUE-BOUND, WOOD-EVIL. An affection of the third stomach of cattle, induced by their unduly partaking of coa.r.s.e indigestible food. Cattle are most commonly attacked by fardel in summer and autumn, when they are able to get at tough, strong, and hard gra.s.s. It is also frequently caused by rye-gra.s.s in seed and ripe vetches, as well as by eating largely of the shoots of trees or the cuttings of hedges, a circ.u.mstance which has given rise to the disease being called ‘wood-evil.’

Sometimes an attack may be brought on through over-feeding, combined with a deficiency of water. The symptoms vary greatly in intensity, and are often some days before they definitely manifest themselves. The animal ceases to ruminate, refuses food, and, if a cow, the secretion of milk is stopped. Then, after a day or two fever (indicated by heat and dryness in the nose and mouth) comes on, with somewhat quickened circulation and breathing, the breathing by the second or third day being accompanied by a grunt at the beginning and end of respiration, which is very noticeable when an attempt is made to move the animal.

In all attacks the animal suffers from obstinate constipation. The first stomach is frequently much distended, and if any faeces are pa.s.sed they are caked, dark coloured, and of variable consistence.

When the disease is attended with most of these symptoms, the animal may live ten days or a fortnight; but unless relief is afforded, nausea very frequently sets in, and continues to increase, the pulse at the same time getting gradually weaker, and the strength failing. In some instances the animal has an epileptic fit, and in others death is preceded by great stupor; whilst in others, again, if it be a horse, it is attacked with stomach staggers.

“The _treatment_ consists in removing the obstinate constipation by powerful purgatives, advantage being taken to gain their utmost efficacy by combining several together, and giving them along with plenty of fluid.

“Three-quarters of a pound each of Epsom and of common salt, twenty croton beans, and a drachm of calomel, will suffice for a full-grown, middle-sized ox or cow, and must be administered in three or four bottles of water or very thin gruel. In this disease there is little fear of giving too much medicine.

“The action of the purgatives is greatly expedited by the use of occasional stimulants, which in diseases of the digestive organs of cattle may be given without fear of engendering or aggravating inflammation.

Every encouragement must be used to get the animal to drink, for large quant.i.ties of fluid are obviously most essential in washing out the obstruction which causes the evil. The cessation of the grunt, the pa.s.sage of some hard cakes of dung, with the subsequent abatement of the fever, are the signs of amendment for which we watch; but even after the first movement of the bowels considerable attention, a sloppy diet, and several doses of purgative medicine, are requisite to empty the ca.n.a.l and prevent the recurrence of the obstruction. If twenty hours elapse after the administration of the above combination without any action of the bowels, the same dose may be repeated, along with a good quant.i.ty of some stimulant, such as a bottle of ale, with two ounces of oil of turpentine and two ounces of ginger. Half the quant.i.ty of the purgative may be given at the end of a like interval, if no effect be produced; but the further employment of purgatives is injurious, inasmuch as it increases the nausea without expediting the action of the bowels.

“A week will sometimes elapse without any alvine evacuation; in some cases I have known ten or eleven days, and in some fifteen days. Yet even in these recovery took place; and so long as stupor and frenzy are staved off, there is always hope of a cure. After the prompt and energetic adoption of the treatment recommended, little further remains to be done except to withhold all solid indigestible food, administer frequent quant.i.ties of water, or any simple fluid, which must be horned over if the beast will not take it; allow also plenty of treacle, and encourage the action of the medicine by clysters, scalding the belly, and occasional exercise. Blood-letting is not only useless, but even injurious.” (FINLAY DUN.)

=FAR’INA.= The flour of any species of corn, pulse, tuber, or starchy root. The most important kinds of farina are noticed under their respective heads. The following dietetic articles of a farinaceous character are extensively advertised:–

BAKER’S ALIMENTARY COMPOUND. Fine flour (pastrycook’s), 2 parts; finely ground rice, 1 part.

BASTER’S COMPOUND FARINA. Wheat flour, 14 oz.; white sugar, 2 oz.

BRADEN’S FARINACEOUS FOOD. Similar to Hard’s (_below_).

BRIGHT’S NUTRITIOUS FARINA. Rice flour and potato starch, equal parts.

BRIGHT’S BREAKFAST POWDER. Chocolate, 1 part; nutritious farina (Bright’s) 2 parts.

BULLOCK’S SEMOLA. Wheat flour, from which a portion of the starch has been removed, so as to leave an excess of gluten.

DENHAM’S FARINACEOUS FOOD. Wheat flour, 3 parts; barley meal, 1 part; the mixture is slightly baked, and again ground and sifted. Said to be slightly laxative.

DURYEA’S MAIZENA. Indian corn starch prepared for food.

GARDINER’S ALIMENTARY PREPARATION. Pure rice flour, very finely ground.

HARD’S FARINACEOUS FOOD. Wheat flour, slightly baked, and resifted.

KINGSFORD’S OSWEGO PREPARED CORN. An excellent preparation of Indian corn.

LEATH’S ALIMENTARY FARINA. Wheat flour (baked), with some sugar, Indian corn meal, and tapioca. According to some, it also contains potato starch.

MAIDMAN’S NUTRITIOUS FARINA. Potato starch tinged with beet-root or other pink colouring matter.

PLUMBE’S FARINACEOUS FOOD. South-sea arrow-root, with about 1-3rd its weight of pea flour.

POLSON’S CORN FLOUR. The starch of Indian corn or maize prepared with great care. It is much used as a subst.i.tute for arrow-root, and for custards, puddings, &c.

SMITH’S NURSING FARINA. Equal parts of baked wheat flour and rice flour.

_Obs._ Many of the above compounds are deficient in the nitrogenous elements of nutrition, and all of them nearly dest.i.tute of the mineral and saline matters which are absolutely necessary to the formation of the bones and tissues, and the support of the body in health, and are consequently utterly unsuitable as an exclusive article of diet, especially for young children. Unfortunately, it has been too much the fashion of medical men of late years to recommend these compounds, and even to furnish testimonials as to their excellence, apparently relying solely on the representation of their proprietors or vendors. We deem it, however, to be a public duty to caution parents and nurses against their injudicious use. As mere adjuvants or auxiliaries, when the natural food supplied by the mother may be insufficient for the nutrition of the infant, some of them may doubtless be of value; but in all other cases they should be largely combined with pure cow’s milk, beef tea, meat broths or gravies, eggs, or other substances rich in the nitrogenous and saline elements of nutrition.

=FARM’ING.= The business or management of a FARM. Formerly farming was looked upon as a profession easily understood, and successfully pursued only by an empiric. It is now, however, regarded in a different light, and the farmer, to succeed, not only requires perseverance and observation, but also a sound knowledge of natural sciences. See b.u.t.tER, CHEESE, IMPLEMENTS, MANURES, SOILS, &c.

=FARMS, SEWAGE.= See SEWAGE FARMS.

=FAT.= _Syn._ ADEPS, L. The fat of animals is a concrete oil contained in the cellular membrane of their bodies, more especially round the kidneys, in the folds of the omentum, at the base of the heart, upon the surface of the intestines, and among many of the muscles. Fat varies in consistence, colour, and odour, with the animal from which it is obtained. That of the carnivora is usually soft and rank-flavoured; that of the ruminantia solid and nearly scentless. It is generally whitest and most copious in the well-fed young animal, and yellowish and more scanty in the old. That under the skin and surrounding the kidneys (suet) is also more solid than that in the neighbourhood of the movable viscera. In the cetacea, or whale tribe, the fatty secretion a.s.sumes the form of oil. These variations in consistency depend upon the relative proportions of solid stearin and liquid olein present in the fat.

The vegetable fats are found in various parts of certain plants, but are generally most abundant in the seeds. They are extracted by simple pressure or else by boiling. Two kinds of vegetable fat, namely, palm-oil and cocoa-nut oil, are extensively employed in the useful arts.

All fats are lighter than water. They are all soluble in ether, benzol, and turpentine, and may be mixed with each other in any proportion.

In former times the fats of many animals were employed in pharmacy, but at present those princ.i.p.ally used are lard and suet. In perfumery, in addition to these, beef marrow and bear’s grease are employed. For both these purposes the crude material is cut into small pieces, and freed as much as possible from all extraneous membranes; after which it is placed in a boiler with water, and heated until it is completely fused, when the whole is strained, and allowed to cool very slowly. By this means a cake of cleansed fat is obtained, which may be readily separated from any adhering water.

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