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CARAGLIO, an eminent Italian engraver, born at Verona, engraved on gems and medals as well as copper-plate, after the works of the great masters (1500-1570).

CARAVAGGIO, an Italian painter, disdained the ideal and the ideal style of art, and kept generally to cra.s.s reality, often in its grossest forms; a man of a violent temper, which hastened his end; a painting by him of “Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus” is in the National Gallery, London (1569-1609).

CARAVANSERAI, a large unfurnished inn, with a court in the middle for the accommodation of caravans and other travellers at night in the East.

CARBOHYDRATES, a cla.s.s of substances such as the sugars, starch, &c., consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, the latter in the proportion in which they exist in water.

CARBONARI (lit. _charcoal burners_), a secret society that, in the beginning of the 19th century, originated in Italy and extended itself into France, numbering hundreds of thousands, included Lord Byron, Silvio Pellico, and Mazzini among them, the object of which was the overthrow of despotic governments; they were broken up by Austria, and absorbed by the Young Italy party.

CARDAN, JEROME, Italian physician and mathematician, born at Pavia; was far-famed as a physician; studied and wrote on all manner of known subjects, made discoveries in algebra, believed in astrology, left a candid account of himself ent.i.tled “De Vita Propria”; was the author of “Cardan’s Formula” a formula for the solution of cubic equations; he is said to have starved himself to death so as to fulfil a prophecy he had made as to the term of his life (1501-1576).

CARDIFF (129), county town of Glamorganshire, S. Wales, on the river Taff, the sea outlet for the mineral wealth and products of the district, a town that has risen more rapidly than any other in the kingdom, having had at the beginning of the century only 2000 inhabitants; it has a university, a number of churches, few of them belonging to the Church of England, and has also three daily papers.

CARDIGAN, EARL OF, a British officer; commanded the Light Cavalry Brigade in the Crimean war, and distinguished himself in the famous charge of the Six Hundred, which he led; his favourite regiment, the 11th Hussars, on the equipment of which he lavished large sums of money (1797-1868).

CARDIGANSHIRE (62), a county in S. Wales, low-lying on the coast, level towards the coast, and mountainous in the interior, but with fertile valleys.

CARDINAL VIRTUES, these have been “arranged by the wisest men of all time, under four general heads,” and are defined by Ruskin as “Prudence or Discretion (the spirit which discerns and adopts rightly), Justice (the spirit which rules and divides rightly), Fort.i.tude (the spirit that persists and endures rightly), and Temperance (the spirit which stops and refuses rightly). These cardinal and sentinel virtues,” he adds, “are not only the means of protecting and prolonging life itself, but are the chief guards or sources of the material means of life, and the governing powers and princes of economy.”

CARDINALISTS, name given to the partisans in France of Richelieu and Mazarin.

CARDUCCI, Florentine artists, brothers, of the 17th century; did their chief work in Spain.

CARDUCCI, GIOSUE, an Italian poet and critic; author of “Hymn to Satan,” “Odi Barbari,” “Commentaries on Petrarch,” &c.; _b_. 1837.

CAREW, THOMAS, English courtier poet; his poems, chiefly masks and lyrics (1589-1639).

CAREY, HENRY, English poet and musician, excelled in ballads; composed “Sally in Our Alley”; _d_. 1743.

CAREY, SIR ROBERT, warden of the Border Marches under Elizabeth; present at her deathbed rode off post-haste on the occurrence of the death with the news to Edinburgh to announce it to King James (1560-1639).

CAREY, WILLIAM, celebrated Baptist missionary, born in Northamptonshire; founder of the Baptist Missionary Society, and its first missionary; founded the mission at Serampore and directed its operations, distributing Bibles and tracts by thousands in native languages, as well as preparing grammars and dictionaries; was 29 years Oriental professor in the College of Fort William. Calcutta (1761-1834).

CARGILL, DONALD, a Scotch Covenanter, born in Perthshire; was minister of the Barony Parish, Glasgow; fought at Bothwell Brig; suffered at the Cross of Edinburgh for daring to excommunicate the king; died with the faith and courage of a martyr (1619-1681).

CARIA, a SW. country in Asia Minor, bordering on the Archipelago, of which the Maeander is the chief river.

CARIBBEAN SEA, an inland sea of the Atlantic, lying between the Great Antilles and South America, subject to hurricanes; it corresponds to the Mediterranean in Europe, and is the turning-point of the Gulf Stream.

CARIBS, a race of American Indians, originally inhabiting the West Indies, now confined to the southern sh.o.r.es of the Caribbean Sea, as far as the mouth of the Amazon; they are a fine race, tall, and of ruddy-brown complexion, but have lost their distinctive physique by amalgamation with other tribes; they give name to the Caribbean Sea.

CARINTHIA (361), since 1849 crownland of Austria, near Italy; is a mountainous and a mineral country; rears cattle and horses; manufactures hardware and textile fabrics; the princ.i.p.al river is the Drave; capital, Klagenfurt.

CARISBROOKE, a village in the Isle of Wight, in the castle of which, now in ruins, Charles I. was imprisoned 13 months before his trial; it was at one time a Roman station.

CARLeN, EMILIA, Swedish novelist; her novels, some 30 in number, treat of the everyday life of the lower and middle cla.s.ses (1807-1883).

CARLETON, WILLIAM, Irish novelist; his first work, and the foundation of his reputation, “Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry,” followed by others of a like cla.s.s (1794-1860).

CARLI, Italian archaeologist, numismatist, and economist, born at Capo d’Istria; wrote as his chief work on political economy; president of the Council of Commerce at Milan (1720-1795).

CARLILE, RICHARD, English Radical and Freethinker, born in Devonshire; a disciple of Tom Paine’s, and propagandist of his views with a zeal which no prosecution could subdue, although he time after time suffered imprisonment for it, as well as those who a.s.sociated themselves with him, his wife included; his princ.i.p.al organ was “The Republican,”

the first twelve volumes of which are dated from his prison; he was a martyr for the freedom of the press, and in that interest did not suffer in vain (1790-1843).

CARLISLE (39), county town of c.u.mberland, on the Eden; a great railway centre; with an old castle of historical interest, and a cathedral founded by William Rufus and dedicated to Henry I.

CARLISLE, GEORGE FREDERICK WILLIAM HOWARD, EARL OF, a Whig in politics; supported the successive Whig administrations of his time, and became eventually Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland under Palmerston (1802-1864).

CARLISTS, a name given in France to the partisans of Charles X.

(1830), and especially in Spain to those of Don Carlos (1833), and those of his grandson (1873-1874).

CARLOMAN, son of Charles Martel, and brother of Pepin le Bref, king of Austrasia from 741 to 747; abdicated, and retired into a monastery, where he died.

CARLOMAN, son of Pepin le Bref, and brother of Charlemagne, king of Austrasia, Burgundy, and Provence in 768; _d_. 771.

CARLOMAN, king of France conjointly with his brother Louis III.; _d_. 884.

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